Measuring Middle-Skills Occupational Gaps within the Western New York Region

MEASURING MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONAL GAPS WITHIN THE

WESTERN NEW YORK REGIONAL ECONOMY BETA VERSION 1

IN PARTNERSHIP WITH

SPONSORED BY

INTRODUCTION The WNY STEM Hub (WNY STEM) is an incorporated nonprofit of nearly 600 individuals representing over 250 organizations. We facilitate partnerships with business, education and community collaborators to serve learners of all ages in accessing STEM learning and careers. This is achieved by providing services, events, experiences and resources through collaboration of an extensive cross-sector network. WNY STEM is affiliated with a statewide network of STEM Hubs – the SUNY Empire State STEM Learning Network. The 5 counties served by WNY STEM are: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. WNY STEM is an initiative of the United Way of Buffalo and Erie County that serves as fiduciary sponsor for the Hub. The UB Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences at the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus serves as the Steward for WNY STEM. During the summer of 2015, the Workforce Development Action Team of WNY STEM convened focus groups to explore how WNY STEM might collaborate with regional partners to support STEM workforce needs that can help sustain the economic initiatives occurring in the region. Among the outcomes of the focus group discussions was the need for current, actionable data on STEM workforce skills gaps in the region that might guide future action. Todd Oldham, Vice President of Economic and Workforce Development at Monroe Community College was invited to present a successful data report on middle-skills gaps in the Finger Lakes Region in anticipation that such a report might begin the process of quantifying and identifying the gaps that currently exist. Three years ago, Monroe Community College (MCC) in partnership with SUNY (State University of New York) was awarded a $14.6 million grant from the U.S. Department of Labor to design, implement, and deliver a strategic approach to job training and education for high-need industries such as nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing. The consortium of 30 community colleges known as the SUNY TEAM (Training and Education in Advanced Manufacturing) Project designed and delivered comprehensive training and education in the advanced manufacturing industry sector. WNY STEM is a valued SUNY TEAM partner and was subsequently included in the SUNY TEAM’s project work. This data mapping project was funded by SUNY TEAM because of the demand for skilled and credentialed workers as evidenced by the local job opportunities, and a noted skills gap in existing training programs and current infrastructure. This project attempts to quantify and estimate the likely middle-skills gap across the advanced manufacturing workforce cluster within the Western New York Economy so regional training and education providers might better address the gaps and serve industry. In addition to the leadership role of Monroe Community College in the data management process, WNY STEM acknowledges that this report is the collective input of an advisory panel comprised of leaders in workforce development and educational institutions across all five counties of the region that supported triangulation of the data included in the report. WNY STEM is committed to the premise that learners engaged in STEM learning and career pathway development will have the skills and dispositions to succeed in college and career and will contribute to an economically and intellectually vibrant region. It is our hope that this report will be a valuable tool in continuing to move our mission forward and support our region’s manufacturing sector. Sincerely,

Michelle Kavanaugh, Ed.D. President, WNY STEM Hub

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

2

A special thank you to the members of the advisory panel for their guidance. Their input was integral to the development of this report. Buffalo Niagara Manufacturing Alliance Peter Coleman, Executive Director Buffalo Niagara Partnership Liz Callahan, Manager for Workforce Development Buffalo & Erie County Workforce Investment Board, Inc. Heather Gresham, Executive Director Erie County Community College Fabio Escobar, Director of Institutional Research, Assessment, Accreditation and Planning Erie 1 BOCES Michael Capuana, Director of Career & Technical Education Programs & Services Genesee Economic Development Center John Jakubowski, Workforce Development Consultant SUNY Buffalo State Susan McCartney, Special Advisor to the Provost for Economic Development Director, SUNY Buffalo State Small Business Development Center

SUNY Alfred State Craig Clark, Vice President of Economic Development Jamestown Community College Kelly Stineman, Project Manager for Experiential Learning New York State Career & Technical Education Center Charlie Crumb, WNY Field Representative WNY Higher Education Consortium Steve Harvey, Executive Director Western New York Sustainable Business Roundtable Mark Shriver, President Dream It. Do It. Cattaraugus County Evelyn Sabina, Director Chautauqua County Chamber of Commerce Justin Hanft, Director of Manufacturing Association of the Southern Tier Industrial Services Director of Dream It. Do It. Chautauqua County Orleans-Niagara BOCES, CTE and Adult/Secondary Programs Joseph Steinmetz, Director

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING

3

Advanced manufacturing companies specialize in high-volume parts production, short-run assemblies, complicated engineering designs and/or automated manufacturing process jobs. The Advanced Manufacturing occupational groupings include: Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Mechatronics, Electrical Engineering Technologies, and Tooling and Machining. Advanced Manufacturing centers upon improving the performance of industry through the innovative application of technologies, processes and methods to product design and production.

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPINGS FOR ADVANCED MANUFACTURING

4

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES:

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES:

Mechanical engineering technicians must be able to apply mechanical engineering theory and principles to calibrate, develop, alter or test machinery and equipment under the direction of the engineering staff. Some of the typical tasks of a mechanical engineering technician include component testing, part performance analysis, component fabrication and assembly, and blueprint and design analysis based on design objectives. MECHATRONICS: Mechatronics stems from blending mechanical and electronics in a relatively new approach to product design and development, merging the principles of electrical, mechanical, computer and industrial engineering. Mechatronic systems are often referred to as “smart” devices because of the incorporation of sensors, actuators and computer control systems. Mechatronics has become synonymous with products that exhibit fast, precise performance. A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics, electronics, and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system.

The role of Electrical Engineering technicians can be as varied as the workplaces they find themselves in: a pristine lab environment, a fabrication company, or a consulting firm. Job growth is anticipated by virtue of constant emerging technologies. Electrical Engineering technicians are prepared to research, design, develop, test and supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial and scientific use. They test and modify developmental and operational electrical machinery, electrical control equipment, and circuitry in industrial and commercial plants and laboratories. TOOLING AND MACHINING: The precision machining industry is one of the most technologically advanced fields. Machinists with the proper skill sets are in high demand as a result of their training in quality control and metrology. Computer numerically controlled (“CNC”) machines are employed in most modern-day machine shops and mass production facilities to increase accuracy and efficiency when forming metal parts. CNC machining, laser and water jet technology, electric discharge machining (“wire EDM”), computer aided design (“CAD”), computer aided manufacturing (“CAM”) design, and manufacturing programs are all examples of this cutting edge technology. Highly specialized, skilled machinists are helping to meet the rising local and global demand of innovative products and technologies.

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND

5

WAGES

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand

17-3012.01 Electronic Drafters 17-3012.02 Electrical Drafters 17-3013.00 Mechanical Drafters

$15.94 $25.17 $39.55 $16.80 $23.99 $34.08 $15.05 $25.24 $36.45

4

11 15

17-3023.01 Electronics Engineering Technicians 17-3023.03 Electrical Engineering Technicians 17-3024.00 Electro-Mechanical Technicians 17-3024.01 Robotics Technicians 17-3025.00 Environmental Engineering Technicians 17-3026.00 Industrial Engineering Technicians 17-3027.00 Mechanical Engineering Technicians 17-3029.01 Non-Destructive Testing Specialists 17-3029.02 Electrical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.03 Electromechanical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.04 Electronics Engineering Technologists 17-3029.05 Industrial Engineering Technologists 17-3029.06 Manufacturing Engineering Technologists 17-3029.07 Mechanical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.08 Photonics Technicians 17-3029.09 Manufacturing Production Technicians 17-3029.10 Fuel Cell Technicians 17-3029.11 Nanotechnology Engineering Technologists 17-3029.12 Nanotechnology Engineering Technicians 19-1012.00 Food Scientists and Technologists

$13.92 $21.39 $32.82 Insf. Data

$12.78 $19.63 $28.30 $16.12 $25.15 $34.81 $14.84 $22.72 $30.12

9

15

7

$17.43 $26.63 $38.71

7

$16.52 $22.89 $53.43 $13.73 $17.76 $24.86 $10.57 $13.93 $28.97 $13.31 $17.74 $29.94 $15.81 $21.23 $39.56

6 3

19-4011.01 Agricultural Technicians 19-4011.02 Food Science Technicians 19-4021.00 Biological Technicians

10 13

19-4091.00 Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health

27-1021.00 Commercial and Industrial Designers 29-2011.00 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists 29-2011.01 Cytogenetic Technologists 29-2011.02 Cytotechnologists 29-2011.03 Histotechnologists and Histologic Technicians

6

$23.19 $27.28 $34.90

16

© 2016 MCC

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND (CONTINUED) 6

WAGES

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand

29-2012.00 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians 29-2056.00 Veterinary Technologists and Technicians 29-9011.00 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists

$14.66 $20.95 $27.88 $10.78 $15.15 $22.38 $23.67 $32.23 $45.67 $17.86 $28.29 $35.33 $15.38 $22.23 $31.39 $20.21 $33.51 $44.26 $17.68 $24.26 $31.14 $13.82 $20.12 $32.46 $10.50 $17.48 $27.75 $9.43 $13.89 $24.71 $11.06 $17.31 $24.78 $10.79 $17.01 $23.39 $14.42 $20.75 $30.03 $11.96 $17.10 $22.80 $9.99 $15.36 $21.83 $14.15 $18.62 $26.36 $10.11 $15.76 $25.77 $10.26 $17.25 $23.15

16 11

8 9

49-2094.00 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment 49-2095.00 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay 49-3042.00 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines 49-9012.00 Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door 49-9041.00 Industrial Machinery Mechanics 49-9043.00 Maintenance Workers, Machinery 49-9071.00 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General 49-9099.00 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other 51-2023.00 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers 51-4011.00 Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic 51-4012.00 Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic 51-4021.00 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4022.00 Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4023.00 Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4031.00 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4032.00 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

$24.97 $33.02 $43.63 Insf. Data

14 14 86

9

201

17

6

39 15

6 3 4

11

2 51-4033.00 Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.88 $19.95 $26.39 15 51-4034.00 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $12.05 $18.92 $23.22 8 51-4035.00 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.02 $15.38 $25.59 3 51-4041.00 Machinists $14.88 $20.67 $29.56 135 51-4061.00 Model Makers, Metal and Plastic $13.93 $22.59 $30.82 Insf. Data 51-4062.00 Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic Insf. Data Insf. Data Insf. Data Insf. Data 51-4071.00 Foundry Mold and Coremakers $10.06 $15.62 $19.64 Insf. Data 51-4072.00 Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $9.30 $18.53 $23.50 10 51-4081.00 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $12.24 $16.42 $30.12 8 51-4111.00 Tool and Die Makers $19.51 $29.79 $35.59 23 51-4192.00 Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic $11.15 $17.18 $25.37 Insf. Data 51-4193.00 Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.23 $16.01 $25.65 4 51-4194.00 Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners $10.80 $14.89 $26.06 2 51-9061.00 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers $9.84 $16.83 $27.43 85 $13.04 $19.89 $29.30 894

Wages and demand data based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. © 2016 MCC

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES

7

$ 29.30

$ 30

$ 25

$ 26 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 2 ADULTS + 1 PRESCHOOLER & 1 SCHOOL AGE CHILD (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 20

$ 18 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 1 ADULT + 1 PRESCHOOLER (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 19.89

$ 15

Hourly Wage

$ 10

$ 13.04

$ 5

0

High Wage (90th Percentile)

Entry Level Wage (10th Percentile)

Median Wage (50th Percentile)

Wage curve based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Complete self-sufficiency data is located in the Appendix: Self-Sufficiency Standard for Erie County, NY.

© 2016 MCC

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING GAP ANALYSIS: REGIONAL PROGRAM COMPLETIONS VS. ESTIMATED ANNUAL OPENINGS

8

This measurement aims to provide a high-level gap analysis, comparing the total estimated number of learners completing a relevant middle-skills training and education program within the region against estimated industry demands for middle-skills workers.

2014-2015 Estimated Annual Estimated Completions Job Openings Gap (∆)

Aggregate Middle-Skills Education Providers Note: Data is estimated, not predictive.

565*

894 -329**

* The 565 annual regional completions represent a supply of 63.1 % newly trained advanced manufacturing related middle-skills workers produced locally through the formal educaion system against an estimted annual demand of 894 openings.

**This suggests that in the advanced manufacurting cluster, about 36.8 % of advanced manufacturing related jobs go unfilled each year in the region due to an insufficient number of graduates produced locally.

2015 TOTAL WORKFORCE 28,118 Middle-Skills occupations in Advanced Manufacturing

10-year aging out projection: 25 % are approaching retirement age

Source: IPEDS.

© 2016 MCC

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILL CLUSTERS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

9

2313 1

Common Skills: Communication and Coordination Common Skills: Problem Solving Repair: General Common Skills: Business Environment Skills Common Skills: Project and Process Flow Skills Other Software Skills: Word Processing Software

2016 1

1693 1

1366 1

1004 1

729 1

Engineering: Mechanical Construction: Plumbing Admin Support: General Engineering: Electrical and Electronic Sciences: General

615 1

597 1

586 1

569 1

544 1

Manufacturing / Production: Machining Customer Service: Basic Assistance Other Software Skills: Excel / Spreadsheet Software Construction: General

542 1 521 1

519 1

472 1

0 350 700 1050 1400 1750 2100 2450 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

MIDDLE-SKILLS OCCUPATIONS IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILLS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

10

1947 1

Repair Inspection Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

1233 1

650 1

Machining Machinery Plumbing Customer Service Mathematics Hand Tools Welding HVAC Cleaning Scheduling Schematic Diagrams Micrometers

614 1 547 1

528 1

506 1

480 1

414 1 413 1

398 1

392 1

379 1

349 1

339 1

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES OCCUPATIONAL GROUP DEFINITION STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND

11

WAGES

MECHATRONICS

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand $15.80 $25.02 $39.35 Insf. Data

17-3012.01 17-3012.02 17-3013 17-3024 17-3027 27-1021 49-9041 49-9043 51-9061 17-3024.01

Electrical Drafters Electronic Drafters Mechanical Drafters

$16.63 $23.74 $33.72

12

Electro-Mechanical Technicians

$13.70 $21.04 $32.19 Insf. Data

Robotics Technicians

Mechanical Engineering Technicians Commercial and Industrial Designers Industrial Machinery Mechanics Maintenance Workers, Machinery

$14.24 $21.90 $29.03 $15.78 $21.31 $39.93 $17.60 $24.15 $31.01 $13.72 $19.98 $32.24 $9.73 $16.66 $27.18 $13.44 $20.28 $29.92

8 6

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

96 12

Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers

103 242

TOOLING AND MACHING

Wages and demand data based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara.

© 2016 MCC

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES

12

$ 29.92

$ 30

$ 26 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 2 ADULTS + 1 PRESCHOOLER & 1 SCHOOL AGE CHILD (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 25

$ 20

$ 20.28

$ 15

$ 18 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 1 ADULT + 1 PRESCHOOLER (ERIE COUNTY)

Hourly Wage

$ 13.44

$ 10

$ 5

0

High Wage (90th Percentile)

Entry Level Wage (10th Percentile)

Median Wage (50th Percentile)

Wage curve based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Complete self-sufficiency data is located in the Appendix: Self-Sufficiency Standard for Erie County, NY. © 2016 MCC

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES GAP ANALYSIS: REGIONAL PROGRAM COMPLETIONS VS. ESTIMATED ANNUAL OPENINGS

13

This measurement aims to provide a high-level gap analysis, comparing the total estimated number of learners completing a relevant middle-skills training and education program within the region against estimated industry demands for those middle-skills workers relevant to the occupational group. For more detailed completion data, click here.

MECHATRONICS

Middle-Skills Education Provider

2014-2015 Estimated Annual Estimated Completions Job Openings Gap (∆)

61

SUNY College of Technology at Alfred Jamestown Community College

8 9

242 -164 **

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

Erie Community College

TOTAL

78 *

TOOLING AND MACHING

* The 78 annual regional completions represent a supply of 32.2 % new mechanical engineering technologies related workers produced locally through the formal education system against an estimated annual demand of 242 openings.

** This suggests that in this occupational group, approximately 67.7 % of mechanical engineering technologies related jobs may go unfilled each year in the region due to an insufficient number of graduates produced locally.

2015 TOTAL WORKFORCE 6,526 Mechanical Engineering Technologies Workers

10-year aging out projection: 26 % are approaching retirement age

Source: IPEDS. © 2016 MCC

14

PHOTO TO COME

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILL CLUSTERS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

15

568

Common Skills: Communication and Coordination Common Skills: Problem Solving Common Skills: Project and Process Flow Skills Common Skills: Business Environment Skills Engineering: Engineering Software Engineering: Drafting Other Software Skills: Word Processing Software Repair: General Other Software Skills: Excel / Spreadsheet Software

MECHATRONICS

434

372

323

285

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

274

259

198

169 1 164

TOOLING AND MACHING

Engineering: Mechanical Admin Support: General Engineering: General

160

120

115

Engineering: Electrical and Electronic Manufacturing / Production: Machining Manufacturing / Production: Welding 0

111

95

100 200 300 400 500 600 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight. © 2016 MCC

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILLS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

16

426

Inspection Repair AutoCAD Computer Aided Drafting/Design (CAD) Welding

212

156

138

98

Micrometers Mathematics Filing Calibration Calipers Mechanical Engineering Project Management Customer Service

97

91

88

82 82

79

77

76

73

Scheduling Machinery

72

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

MECHATRONICS OCCUPATIONAL GROUP DEFINITION STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND

17

WAGES

WAGES

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

17-3023.01 Electronics Engineering Technicians 17-3023.03 Electrical Engineering Technicians 17-3024 Electro-Mechanical Technicians 17-3026 Industrial Engineering Technicians 17-3027 Mechanical Engineering Technicians 17-3029.01 Non-Destructive Testing Specialists 17-3029.02 Electrical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.03 Electromechanical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.04 Electronics Engineering Technologists 17-3029.05 Industrial Engineering Technologists 17-3029.06 Manufacturing Engineering Technologists 17-3029.07 Mechanical Engineering Technologists 17-3029.08 Photonics Technicians 17-3029.09 Manufacturing Production Technicians 17-3029.10 Fuel Cell Technicians

$15.05 $25.24 $36.45

16

$13.92 $21.39 $32.82 Insf. Data

$16.12 $25.15 $34.81 $14.84 $22.72 $30.12

16

7

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

$17.43 $26.63 $38.71

8

TOOLING AND MACHING

17-3029.11 Nanotechnology Engineering Technologists 17-3029.12 Nanotechnology Engineering Technicians 49-2094 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment 49-3042 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines 49-9012 Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door

$17.86 $28.29 $35.33 $15.38 $22.23 $31.39 $20.21 $33.51 $44.26 $17.68 $24.26 $31.14 $13.82 $20.12 $32.46 $10.50 $17.48 $27.75 $9.43 $13.89 $24.71 $11.06 $17.31 $24.78 $14.88 $20.67 $29.56 $12.24 $16.42 $30.12

10 15 14 95 11

49-9041 Industrial Machinery Mechanics 49-9043 Maintenance Workers, Machinery 49-9071 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General

217

49-9099 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other

17

51-2023 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers

7

51-4041 Machinists

151

51-4081 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

9 $13.21 $20.11 $29.73 594

Wages and demand data based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara.

© 2016 MCC

MECHATRONICS OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES

18

$ 29.73

$ 30

$ 25

$ 26 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 2 ADULTS + 1 PRESCHOOLER & 1 SCHOOL AGE CHILD (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 20

$ 20.11

$ 18 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 1 ADULT + 1 PRESCHOOLER (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 15

$ 13.21

Hourly Wage

$ 10

$ 5

0

Entry Level Wage (10th Percentile)

Median Wage (50th Percentile)

High Wage (90th Percentile)

Wage curve based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Complete self-sufficiency data is located in the Appendix: Self-Sufficiency Standard for Erie County, NY.

© 2016 MCC

MECHATRONICS GAP ANALYSIS: REGIONAL PROGRAM COMPLETIONS VS. ESTIMATED ANNUAL OPENINGS

19

This measurement aims to provide a high-level gap analysis, comparing the total estimated number of learners completing a relevant middle-skills training and education program within the region against estimated industry demands for those middle-skills workers relevant to the occupational group. For more detailed completion data, click here. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

Middle-Skills Education Provider

2014-15 Estimated Annual Estimated Completions Job Openings Gap (∆)

SUNY College of Technology at Alfred 103

Jamestown Community College

11

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

594 -328 **

Erie Community College

113

ITT Technical Institute-Getzville

39

TOTAL

266 *

TOOLING AND MACHING

* The 266 annual regional completions represent a supply of 44.7 % new mechatronics related workers produced locally through the formal education system against an estimated annual demand of 594 openings.

** This suggests that in this occupational group, approximately 55.2 % of mechatronics related jobs may go unfilled each year in the region due to an insufficient number of graduates produced locally.

2015 TOTAL WORKFORCE 17,031 Mechatronics Workers

10-year aging out projection: 25 % are approaching retirement age

Source: IPEDS. © 2016 MCC

20

MECHATRONICS REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILL CLUSTERS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

21

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

1507

Repair: General Common Skills: Communication and Coordination Common Skills: ProblemSolving Common Skills: Business Environment Skills Construction: Plumbing Engineering: Electrical and Electronic Engineering: Mechanical Construction: General Construction: Electrical Common Skills: Project and Process FlowSkills Repair: HVAC

1245 1205

742

540

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

458

457

415

390 375

TOOLING AND MACHING

371

Customer Service: BasicAssistance Manufacturing / Production: Welding Manufacturing / Production: Machining Admin Support: General

348

342

319

306

0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

MECHATRONICS REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILLS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

22

Repair Inspection Plumbing Machining Machinery HVAC Hand Tools Welding Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Customer Service Schematic Diagrams Cleaning Power Tools Carpentry Mathematics

1730

598

493

433 428

364

358

347

340 340

283 282 263

243

238

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES OCCUPATIONAL GROUP DEFINITION STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND

23

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

WAGES WAGES

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand

17-3012.01 Electronic Drafters

$15.80 $25.02 $39.35 Insf. Data

17-3012.02 Electrical Drafters 17-3023.01 Electronics Engineering Technicians 17-3023.03 Electrical Engineering Technicians 17-3024 Electro-Mechanical Technicians

$14.96 $25.12 $36.30

17

$13.70 $21.04 $32.19 Insf. Data $17.77 $28.17 $35.19 $24.92 $32.96 $43.57 $14.19 $20.42 $29.55 $10.74 $15.01 $25.04 Insf. Data $15.55 $24.31 $34.30 57 12 Insf. Data 17

MECHATRONICS TOOLING AND MACHING

49-2094 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment 49-2095 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay 51-4012 Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic 51-4035 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Wages and demand data based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara.

© 2016 MCC

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES

24

$ 34.30

$ 30

$ 25

$ 26 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 2 ADULTS + 1 PRESCHOOLER & 1 SCHOOL AGE CHILD (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 24.31

$ 20

$ 18 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 1 ADULT + 1 PRESCHOOLER (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 15

$ 15.55

Hourly Wage

$ 10

$ 5

0

High Wage (90th Percentile)

Entry Level Wage (10th Percentile)

Median Wage (50th Percentile)

Wage curve based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Complete self-sufficiency data is located in the Appendix: Self-Sufficiency Standard for Erie County, NY.

© 2016 MCC

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES GAP ANALYSIS: REGIONAL PROGRAM COMPLETIONS VS. ESTIMATED ANNUAL OPENINGS

25

This measurement aims to provide a high-level gap analysis, comparing the total estimated number of learners completing a relevant middle-skills training and education program within the region against estimated industry demands for those middle-skills workers relevant to the occupational group. For more detailed completion data, click here.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

Middle-Skills Education Provider

2014-15 Estimated Annual Estimated Completions Job Openings Gap (∆)

SUNY College of Technology at Alfred 106 Erie Community College 23

57 111 **

MECHATRONICS TOOLING AND MACHING

ITT Technical Institute-Getzville

39

TOTAL

168 *

* The 168 annual regional completions represent a supply of 294 % new electrical engineering technologies related workers produced locally through the formal education system against an estimated annual demand of 57 openings.

** This suggests that education providers may be producing a surplus of electrical engineering technologies related workers of appoximately 1.9 % annually for the estimated number of job openings in the occupational group for the region.

2015 TOTAL WORKFORCE 1,555 Electrical Engineering Technologies Workers

10-year aging out projection: 24 % are approaching retirement age

Source: IPEDS. © 2016 MCC

26

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILL CLUSTERS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

27

181

Common Skills: Communication and Coordination Common Skills: ProblemSolving Engineering: Electrical and Electronic Repair: General Common Skills: Business Environment Skills Construction: Electrical Engineering: Engineering Software Engineering: Drafting Other Software Skills: Word Processing Software Admin Support: General Other Software Skills: Excel / Spreadsheet Software IT: Support Common Skills: Project and Process FlowSkills Manufacturing / Production: Machining Engineering: General

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

168

135 1

107

100

MECHATRONICS TOOLING AND MACHING

85 1

85 1

73

71 70 1

68 1

65 1 63

43

39 1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILLS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

28

Repair Test Equipment Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Calibration AutoCAD Wiring Machining Schematic Diagrams Inspection Record Keeping Electrical Engineering Programmable Logic Controller

123

70 1

64 1

62 1

55 1

50

45 1 45 1

43 1

40 1

38 1

34 1

(PLC) Programming Customer Service Electrical Design Oscilloscopes

32 1

32 1

32 1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

TOOLING AND MACHINING OCCUPATIONAL GROUP DEFINITION STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS (SOC), OCCUPATIONS, WAGES & ESTIMATED DEMAND

29

WAGES

WAGES

SOC Occupations

10th 50th 90th Est.Annual Percentile Percentile Percentile Demand

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

49-9043 Maintenance Workers, Machinery

$13.72 $19.98 $32.24 $10.69 $16.86 $23.20 $14.19 $20.42 $29.55 $11.95 $17.08 $22.77 $14.12 $18.58 $26.30 $10.06 $15.63 $25.49

12 52 17

51-4011 Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic 51-4012 Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic 51-4021 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4022 Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4023 Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4031 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4032 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

7

$9.89 $15.21 $21.62 Insf. Data

Insf. Data

18

MECHATRONICS

$10.18 $17.08 $22.92 Insf. Data 51-4033 Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.82 $19.78 $26.19 17 51-4034 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.77 $18.49 $22.72 11 51-4041 Machinists $14.77 $20.51 $29.37 172 51-4061 Model Makers, Metal and Plastic $13.67 $22.18 $30.28 Insf. Data 51-4062 Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic Insf. Data Insf. Data Insf. Data Insf. Data 51-4071 Foundry Mold and Coremakers $10.14 $15.73 $19.77 Insf. Data 51-4072 Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $9.20 $18.34 $23.26 11 51-4081 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $12.03 $16.17 $29.75 13 51-4111 Tool and Die Makers $19.25 $29.39 $35.10 16 51-4192 Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic $11.08 $17.08 $25.24 Insf. Data 51-4193 Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic $11.19 $15.96 $25.61 Insf. Data 51-4194 Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners $10.70 $14.73 $25.72 Insf. Data $13.21 $19.69 $27.72 363

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

Wages and demand data based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara.

© 2016 MCC

TOOLING AND MACHINING OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES

30

$ 35

$ 27.72

30

$ 25

$ 19.69

$ 26 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 2 ADULTS + 1 PRESCHOOLER & 1 SCHOOL AGE CHILD (ERIE COUNTY)

$ 20

$ 15

$ 18 SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR 1 ADULT + 1 PRESCHOOLER (ERIE COUNTY)

Hourly Wage

$ 13.21

$ 10

$ 5

0

High Wage (90th Percentile)

Entry Level Wage (10th Percentile)

Median Wage (50th Percentile)

Wage curve based on the 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Complete self-sufficiency data is located in the Appendix: Self-Sufficiency Standard for Erie County, NY.

© 2016 MCC

TOOLING & MACHINING GAP ANALYSIS: REGIONAL PROGRAM COMPLETIONS VS. ESTIMATED ANNUAL OPENINGS

31

This measurement aims to provide a high-level gap analysis, comparing the total estimated number of learners completing a relevant middle-skills training and education program within the region against estimated industry demands for those middle-skills workers relevant to the occupational group. For more detailed completion data, click here. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

Middle-Skills Education Provider

2014-15 Estimated Annual Estimated Completions Job Openings Gap (∆)

49

SUNY College of Technology at Alfred Jamestown Community College

363 -310 **

4

MECHATRONICS

TOTAL

53 *

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

* The 53 annual regional completions represent a supply of 14.8 % new tooling and machining related workers produced locally through the formal education system against an estimated annual demand of 363 openings.

** This suggests that in this occupational group, approximately 85.1 % of tooling and machining related jobs may go unfilled each year in the region due to an insufficient number of graduates produced locally.

2015 TOTAL WORKFORCE 9,463 Tooling and Machining Workers

10-year aging out projection: 27 % are approaching retirement age

Source: IPEDS. © 2016 MCC

32

TOOLING AND MACHINING REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILL CLUSTERS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

33

Manufacturing / Production: Machining Common Skills: Problem Solving

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

282 1

161 1

Common Skills: Communication and Coordination Common Skills: Business Environment Skills Repair: General Common Skills: Project and Process Flow Skills IT: Support Engineering: Engineering Software Customer Service: BasicAssistance: Technical and Electronic Engineering: Drafting Manufacturing / Production: Welding Sciences: General

130 1

100 1

82 1

MECHATRONICS

69 1

59 1

52 1

51 1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

47 1

46 1

39 1

Construction: General Admin Support: General Manufacturing / Production: Process Improvement 0

38 1 35 1

28 1

50 100 150 200 250 300 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

TOOLING AND MACHINING REAL TIME LABOR MARKET DATA TOP SKILLS: BASED ON ONLINE JOB POSTINGS APRIL 2013-16

34

561 1

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machining Inspection Lathes Micrometers Mathematics Machine Operation Computerized Numerical Control Lathes Calipers Machinery Repair Grinders

478 1

264 1

202 1

182 1

164 1

144 1 142 1 140

104 1

100 1 88 1 84 1

Machine Tools CNC Machine Hand Tools

83 1

68 1

0 75 150 225 300 375 450 525 600 675 Number of Postings (5 County Region)

Based on 5 county region: Based on 5 county region: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie and Niagara. Data Source: Burning Glass Labor/Insight © 2016 MCC

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

35

SUNY TEAM

In September 2012, Monroe Community College (MCC) in partnership with SUNY (State University of New York) was awarded a $14.6 million grant from the U.S. Department of Labor to design, implement, and deliver a strategic approach to job training and education for high-need industries such as nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing.The consortium of 30 community colleges known as the SUNY TEAM (Training and Education in Advanced Manufacturing) Project designed and delivered comprehensive training and education in the advanced manufacturing industry sector.

To date, over 4,200 TAA-eligible workers and veterans throughout New York have been enrolled in SUNY TEAM programs. These programs are designed to help students complete a technical certificate program in two years or less with the benefit of stacked and latticed industry recognized credentials. This project was funded because of the demand for skilled and credentialed workers as evidenced by the local job opportunities, and a noted skills gap in many advanced manufacturing areas.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATIVE WORKFORCE SERVICES AT MCC

36

The purpose of the Monroe Community College (MCC) division of Economic Development and Innovative Workforce Services (EDIWS) is to: • actively create and promote a robust applied-STEM (science, technology, engineering and math), career and technical education, and middle-skills career pathway system; • support investment in curricula and equipment for academic, career and technical education, and industry targeted programming;

• address the shortage in the educational pipeline (future workforce) and inform skills gaps in the existing workforce through labor market intelligence efforts; and • proactive outreach to business and industry. The labor market intelligence provided by EDIWS informs activities related to: regional grant partnerships, program development and investment, and economic impact.

You may contact us at 585.292.3770 or workforceforward.com/JoinDatabase.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project was sponsored by SUNY TEAM in partnership with Monroe Community College’s

Lomax R. Campbell, Assistant to the Vice President, EDIWS Kristin Sine-Kinz, Director, Marketing Operations, EDIWS Angel Andreu, Director, Institutional Research, MCC Mary Ann DeMario, Assistant Director, Institutional Research, MCC

Economic Development and Innovative Workforce Services (EDIWS) division. The project team includes: Todd M. Oldham, Vice President, EDIWS, Project Vision and Leadership Cortney Harris, Director, SUNY TEAM

© 2016 Monroe Community College, Economic Development & Innovative Workforce Services. All rights reserved.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATA SOURCES

37

Source: Analyst—EMSI’s proprietary labor market data system. ESTIMATED ANNUAL DEMAND The estimated employment change and turnover for an occupation for a given year. This is EMSI’s estimate of labor market demand for an occupation and, when combined with Related Completions, gives a picture of the supply and demand for the occupation in the region. Source: EMSI’s proprietary employment data, combined with occupation-specific percentages from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections program. COMPLETIONS The number of people who earned either an Associate’s degree or an academic certificate related to the specified occupational group during the year indicated. Completions used within this context represent the supply of newly created workers by the regional education providers for an occupation and, when compared with estimated annual job openings, provides an estimate of the labor supply created within the year compared to the estimated labor demand for a given occupational group as defined for the Western New York region. MCC completions reflect direct program completions; all related program completions are used for other middle-skills education providers. See 2014-2015 Advanced Manufacturing

SCOPE OF DATA The data contained in this report is based on EMSI’s 2015.4 datarun for the five county region and includes QCEW Employees, Non-QCEW Employees, and Self-employeed data sets. In contrast, MCC Career Coach data—accessible from each Occupational Group Definition page—is based on tradional metropolitian statistical area delineating across New York State OCCUPATION DATA EMSI occupation employment data are based on final EMSI industry data and final EMSI staffing patterns. Wage estimates are based on Occupational Employment Statistics (QCEW and Non-QCEW Employees classes or worker) and the American Community Survey (Self-Employed and Extended Proprietors). Occupational wage estimates also affected by county-level EMSI earnings by industry. WAGES Wages refer to the hourly earnings, excluding benefits, of a worker in an occupation. By default we display the median, which is in the middle of the wage distribution for each occupation; half of the workers make more, half of them make less. Percentile wages can be accessed in MCC Career Coach by clicking any of the adjacent links listed under the “Occupations” column. The “Totals” row contains the average for the median wage at each percentile level, which is used in the construction of the aggregate wage curve for the occupational group.

38

Completers from WNY for more details Source: Completions are derived from the Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System (IPEDS). GAP ANALYSIS This measurement estimates the deficit or surplus of workers across the region for a given occupational group by comparing the number of trained program completers against the estimated annual demand. Formula: Total Annual Completions – Estimated Annual Job Openings = Estimated Gap. Source(s): Completions are derived from IPEDS; 2015 workforce figures were derived from Analyst. CROSSWALKS Are based on input provided by O*NET’s CIP-to- SOC crosswalk, MCC program-related faculty and CNY regional industry partners. OCCUPATIONAL GROUP HOURLY WAGES This is an aggregate curve of the weighted group averages for each hourly wage percentile level. ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS ■ All SOC listed at the eight-digit level are based on six-digit level data. ■ Since this report was compiled using big data systems integrating over 90 (Traditional Labor Market Information by Analyst) and 27,000 (Real-Time Labor Market Information by

Labor Insight/Jobs) data sources, some variance may exist when comparing reported figures to a single data point. ■ Occupational groups and related completions are not mutually exclusive since many programs train graduates for a variety of occupations, and knowledge, skill and ability areas are transferrable to additional occupations beyond the scope of this study. ■ The Real-Time Labor Market Information in this report is based on online job postings. Some fields are more prone to use traditional recruiting methods, in which case their demand for middle-skills workers will not be fully represented by this report. GRAPHS Top Skills and Top Skill Cluster data are derived from an occupational cluster jobs query in Labor/Insight based on the April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2016 timeframe.

INCOME BENCHMARKS, ERIE COUNTY, NY 2014

APPENDIX

39

$ 67,300

70K

* 2010 - 2014 Median Family Income provided by U. S. Census Bureau, State and County QuickFacts.

60K

$ 55,369

$53,850

$ 51,056

Low (80%) Income Limit

$ 47,362

50K

$51,050*

40K

30K

$ 24,250

$33,650 Very Low (50%) Income Limit

$ 20,090

$ 18,720

$ 17,542

20K

10K

2014-2015 Welfare: TANF, SNAP, and WIC

2015 Full-Time Minimum Wage

2015 Federal Poverty Level - 3 Persons

2015 Federal Poverty Level-4 Persons

2010 Self- Sufficiency Standard - Adult + Preschooler & School Age

2010 Self- Sufficiency Standard

2010 Self- Sufficiency Standard -2 Adults + Preschooler & School-age

2016 HUD Median Family & Income Limits

- Adult + Infant & Preschooler

Source for Self Sufficiency Data: http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/SelfSufficiencyStandardForNewYorkState2010.pdf

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